مقدمه: هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی و اعتباریابی مولفهها و ابعاد رهبری اخلاقی مدیران گروههای آموزشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد با رویکرد شایستگی است.
روش کار: پژوهش حاضر از نظر گردآوری دادهها از نوع پژوهش آمیخته است. در ابتدا، با استفاده از اطلاعات حاصل از مصاحبه با مدیران گروههای آموزشی اطلاعات جمعآوری و سپس کدگذاری شد در بخش کیفی 16 نفر به عنوان نمونه به شیوه هدفمند انتخاب شدهاند، مصاحبه تا اشباع نظری ادامه یافت. در بخش کمی 300 نفر از اعضای هیات علمی با استفاده از فرمول کوکران تعیین و با روش نمونهگیری تصادفی انتخاب شدهاند. جهت تعیین رابطه بین گویهها و سازههای متناظرشان از روش تحلیل عاملی تاییدی استفاده شد به منظور بررسی پایایی از شاخصهای ضریب الفای کرونباخ و پایایی مرکب، جهت تعیین روایی همگرا از شاخص بار عاملی و شاخص میانگین واریانس استخراج شده با استفاده از نرم افزارPLS Smart استفاده شد. جهت تعیین روایی واگرا از شاخص بار عرضی و جهت تعیین کیفیت اندازه گیری از شاخص اشتراک با روایی متقاطع استفاده شد.
نتایج: یافته ها نشان داد که مقدار آلفای کرونباخ و پایایی مولفهها بیشتر از70 و معیار روایی همگرا برای هر سه بعد بیشتر از 50 بود .با توجه به دادههای حاصل از شاخص بار عرضی، این مدل اندازهگیری از روایی تشخیصی مناسبی برخوردار است. مقادیر روایی متقاطع (CV Com) نیز نشان داد که مدل از کیفیت لازم برخوردار است.
نتیجه گیری: یافتههای پژوهش نشان داد که سه بعد شایستگی اخلاقی، شایستگی فنی و رفتارهای رهبری اخلاقی از مهمترین ابعاد رهبری اخلاقی در مدیران آموزشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد میباشد
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identifying and validating the ethical leadership model of the managers of the departments of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences with a competency approach
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify and validate dimensions and components of ethical leadership among the managers of the departments of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences along with a competency approach.
Methods: The research was carried out using a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) method. In order to collect information in the qualitative section, the results of semi-structured interviews were used that sixteen people were selected through theoretical sampling method. In the quantitative section, 300 faculty members were selected using the Cochran's formula and by random sampling method. In next step, Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the relationship between items and their corresponding, while in order to evaluate the reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and combined reliability indices were implied. To determine the validity of the convergent validity questionnaire of index (AVE index), convergent validity index (AVE index) and Smart PLS software were utilized.
Results: Cronbach alpha and combined reliability of four dimensions were higher than 70. And also the Convergent Validity Criterion for the four dimensions was upper than 50. According to the index (HTMT), this model had good diagnostic validity. In addition, according to the index (CV Com), the outcomes showed that the model had the necessary quality.
Conclusion: Research findings presented that the three dimensions of moral competence, technical competence, and ethical leadership behaviors were the most important dimensions of ethical leadership in the educational administrators of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.
Identifying and Validating Dimensions and Components of Managers’ Ethical Leadership with a Competency Approach at Departments of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Introduction: Today, the discussion of ethical behavior and ethical values are a prerequisite for management and all managers and employees of the organization and also they must respect these principles and manifest them in their behavior. Attention and emphasis on the observance of ethical principles and standards in the scientific and academic community provides the foundations for sustainable development. Today, promoting ethics in educational organizations is considered one of the important tasks in addition; all managers need to have special moral competencies and abilities that enable them to perform their duties in the best way. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate dimensions and components of ethical leadership among the managers of the departments of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences with a competency approach.
Materials and methods: In terms of data collection, the current research was a mixed type of research (quantitative-qualitative). The qualitative part was based on semi-structured interviews while the quantitative part was based on the questionnaire tool (made by the researcher). In the qualitative part of the research, the data collection tools in the first stage included document library studies and in the second stage, using a semi-structured interview with the academic staff members of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2019-2020. At first, using the information obtained from the interviews with the managers of the educational groups, information was collected and then coded. In order to collect information in the qualitative section, the results of semi-structured interviews were used. Sixteen academic staff members were selected through theoretical sampling method, then interview continued until theoretical saturation. In order to analyze the data obtained from the interview, the method of content analysis was used in the coding method which contained: reading important findings related to the studied phenomenon, giving specific meanings to the extracted sentences classification of obtained concepts, referring to the main content and comparing the data , description of the studied phenomenon and finally returning them to the participants to check the reliability of the results, and then coding and extraction of categories were accomplished. In order to determine the reliability, a strategy such as reviewing the participants has been used in the quantitative section; the structure of the questionnaire was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The final questionnaire was compiled with 85 items in the form of a 5-point Likert scale. Besides the sample size was determined using Cochran's formula. The questionnaire was distributed among 300 academic staff members of basic and clinical departments of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences by random sampling method, in addition, in order to evaluate the reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and combined reliability indices were used. To determine the validity of the convergent validity questionnaire of index (AVE index) and convergent validity index (AVE index) and Smart PLS software were used too.
Results and discussion: The results of the qualitative data analysis of the research showed that the three dimensions of moral competence with the components: moral knowledge, moral attitude, moral skill; and technical competence with the components: technical knowledge, technical attitude, technical skill; and ethical leadership behaviors with the components: moral growth , moral strengthening, were the most important aspects of ethical leadership in educational managers of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The findings of the quantitative section displayed that the factor loadings related to all dimensions of ethical leadership with the competency approach had a favorable status. According to the results, the values of convergent and divergent credit indicators indicated the desirability of the variable credit of ethical leadership with a competency approach. In addition, the values of Cronbach's alpha coefficient and combined reliability pointed to the high accuracy of measuring the variable dimensions of ethical leadership, and in other words, the reliability of the instrument related to these dimensions. Cronbach alpha and combined reliability of four dimensions were higher than 0/70, while the convergent validity criterion for the four dimensions was upper than 0/50. According to the data obtained from the transverse load index, this measurement model had a suitable diagnostic validity, whereas according to the index (HTMT), this model received good diagnostic validity, and according to the index (CV Com) the model had the necessary quality.
Conclusion: According to the results of the research, managers had the characteristic of Ethical leadership, which provided moral guidance, moral growth, and moral strengthening through the power of authority resulting from moral competence, and specialized power resulting from technical competence. From the theoretical point of view, the present study showed that only ethical person and ethical manager were not sufficient to implement ethical leadership in the organization. Emphasis on ethical person and ethical manager had always been considered in previous researches but the current research showed that the ethical leader should be a professional person in addition to the above two characteristics. Also the current research presented that these three dimensions (moral competence, technical competence, ethical leadership behaviors) interacted and connected to each other. Accordingly, based on the interaction and connection among these three dimensions, it can be indicated that the ethical leader would be defined as an "ethical professional manager".