هدف: این مطالعه باهدف شناسایی مولفه های موثر بر توسعه ی کارآفرینی دانشگاه ها انجام شد.
روش کار: این پژوهش حاضر از منظر هدف کاربردی و از منظر جمع آوری اطلاعات با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوا انجام شد. جامعه آماری شامل افراد متخصص و مجرب حوزه مدیریت و کارآفرینی با تجربه دانشگاهی و مدیریتی بودند . نمونه آماری به روش هدفدار و قضاوتی شامل خبرگانی است که دارای مدرک کارشناسی ارشد یا دکتری و یا دانشجوی دکتری باشند که حداقل 10 سال سابقه ی خدمت دارند و از منتخبان کارآفرینی در دانشگاه های علوم پژشکی باشند . بر این اساس با توجه به قانون اشباع داده ها با تعداد 20 نفر از نخبگان مصاحبه انجام شد. روش جمع آوری داده ها مصاحبه و ابزار جمع آوری سوالات عمیق و نیمه عمیق از مصاحبه شوندگان بود..
یافته ها: یافته ها نشان میدهند مولفه های موثر بر توسعه ی کارآفرینی در دانشگاهها دارای 8 بعد اصلی شامل ساختار ، نواندیشی و نوگرایی اجتماعی استراتژی آموزش عالی ، حمایتگری و تشویق ، زیر ساخت های توسعه ای ، ارزش های اجتماعی، آموزش سیستمی و منابع مالی نوآور می باشد که جهت نیل به آن لازم است سیستم آموزشی دانشگاه ها از دانشگاه نسل دوم به سمت دانشگاه های نسل چهارم حرکت نماید.
نتیجه گیری: یافته های پژوهشگران و اتفاق نظر بر عوامل موثر در توسعه ی کارآفرینی در دانشگاهها نشان می دهد نگرش کارآفرینانه به عنوان یکی از راه حل های ممکن برای آمیختن دانشگاه ها با پیچیدگی بسیار سازوکارهای اقتصادی است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the dimensions of the ability to develop the entrepreneurial model of universities
Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of identifying the factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship in universities.
Method: This research was conducted from the perspective of practical purpose and from the perspective of data collection using the content analysis method. The statistical population included experts and experienced people in the field of management and entrepreneurship with academic and managerial experience. The statistical sample in a targeted and judgmental way includes experts who have a master's or doctorate degree or doctoral students who have at least 10 years of service and are among the selected entrepreneurs in medical sciences universities. Based on this, according to the law of data saturation, interviews were conducted with 20 elites. The method of data collection was interviews and the means of collecting in-depth and semi-in-depth questions from the interviewees.
Findings: The findings show that the factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship in universities have 8 main dimensions, including structure, innovation and social innovation, higher education strategy, support and encouragement, development infrastructure, social values, systemic education and financial resources. It is innovative, and in order to achieve it, it is necessary for the educational system of the universities to move from the second generation universities to the fourth generation universities.
Conclusion: The findings of the researchers and the consensus on the effective factors in the development of entrepreneurship in universities show that the entrepreneurial attitude is one of the possible solutions for combining universities with the complexity of economic mechanisms.
Investigating the dimensions of the ability to develop the entrepreneurial model of universities
Introduction: In today's world, entrepreneurship and its tendency play an important role in the survival and development of organizations in turbulent and dynamic environments. Today, the development of entrepreneurship in order to strengthen innovation, initiative and risk-taking in organizations is one of the topics of interest in management literature. Organizational entrepreneurship is a process in which organizations recognize opportunities for growth and development and create new values for their stakeholders through innovation and reallocation of resources. Entrepreneurship is a type of behavior that includes initiative, organization, economic mechanisms to transform resources into opportunities, and accepting the risks of failure. This redistribution of resources and the use of economic mechanisms in organizations such as educational organizations is very important. The distribution of education, the limitation (and reduction) of the government budget, global competition and the changing demands of the knowledge-based economy have caused higher education institutions to pay more attention to economic development and entrepreneurial activities; But doing entrepreneurial activities spontaneously does not make the university an entrepreneurial university. It can be said that the university is an entrepreneur only when it adds value to education and research and vice versa. (Hosseini et al. 2017) Academic entrepreneurship refers to the actions and efforts that universities and university industry departments make in order to commercialize the outputs and results of their academic and scientific research. (Nasrasafhani and Ghaffari 2013) In other words, an entrepreneurial university is a university where scientific entrepreneurship can create a force for economic growth and cause competition in global markets. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying the factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship in universities.
Materials and methods: The research method is applied from the objective point of view and content analysis from the data collection point of view. The statistical population included experts and experienced people in the field of management and entrepreneurship with academic and managerial experience. The statistical sample in a targeted and judgmental way includes experts who have a master's or doctorate degree or doctoral students who have at least 10 years of service and are among the selected entrepreneurs in the University of Medical Sciences. Based on this, 20 elites were interviewed according to the law of data saturation. The method of data collection was interviews and the means of collecting in-depth and semi-in-depth questions from the interviewees. Although getting concepts from the data is the main characteristic of the interview analysis strategy, in this strategy the creativity of the researcher was also a fundamental component. Simultaneously with data collection, free coding was done. This means looking at the data line by line and knowing the processes in it. For this purpose, each interview was reviewed several times by the researcher and the paragraphs with integrated and coherent meanings that resulted in a category were separated from each other. Then, in each paragraph, the concepts were discovered and named using the words used by the interviewees. To measure the validity and reliability of the qualitative research, reliability was used, which consisted of four more detailed concepts: credibility, transferability, verifiability, and reliability.
Results and discussion: According to the findings of the research, it can be said that the factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship in universities include the structure of the university, including the components of decentralization, knowledge sharing, independence, agility, and professionalism; The dimension of innovation and social innovation, including the components of innovation culture and networking and communication capabilities; The dimension of higher education strategy includes the components of organizational structure and university governance, support tools and entrepreneurship drivers, the dimension of support and encouragement includes the components of university attitudes towards entrepreneurship and positive market attitudes towards entrepreneurs, the dimension of development infrastructure factors including components of entrepreneurial competencies, curriculum planning and teaching-learning process; The dimension of social values factors includes the components of society's potential, expectations from the university, society's policy, the dimension of systemic education including the components of context, input, evaluation and development, and consequences; Next, innovative financial sources include the components of financing institutions directly from the government, financing students and families/indirect financing from the government, the financing system based on the pre-purchase of products and services, the financing system based on the order of products and services, The financing system is staff-oriented and the financing system is input-oriented.
Conclusion: This research was conducted with the aim of identifying the factors affecting the development of entrepreneurship in universities. In the last decade, there has been a significant emphasis on the public policies of universities in the field of knowledge transfer, both in developed and developing economies. In the modern era, the social environment of the university has been significantly enriched and new agents have entered the system. Concepts such as competition, production, quality and effectiveness have entered the short-term and daily activities of universities, and the long-term functions of universities as independent institutions have been questioned, and universities have been exposed to economic and political pressures. The activities of the university have crossed the traditional borders due to the connection with the level of economic-social development and expands new ways to develop this interaction between each other. Perhaps the most important of this interaction is business, which is playing the role of an economic engine and at the same time is the most important consumer of knowledge. The findings of the researchers and the consensus on the effective factors in the development of entrepreneurship in universities show that the entrepreneurial attitude is one of the possible solutions for combining universities with the complexity of economic mechanisms.