نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری
1 عضو هیئت علمی، گروه روانشناسی بالینی(مرکز تحقیقات سلامت کودکان و نوجوانان)، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران
2 عضو هیئت علمی، گروه روانشناسی بالینی(مرکز تحقیقات ارتقای سلامت)، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران
3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی بالینی،دانشکده پزشکی،دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان،زاهدان،ایران
4 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی بالینی، گروه روانشناسی بالینی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی تهران، تهران، ایران
5 کارشناس ارشد آموزش پزشکی، دانشکده مجازی آموزش پزشکی و مدیریت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهید بهشتی، تهران
مقدمه: خودکارآمدی پیش بینی کننده مهم موفقیت تحصیلی شناخته می شود، بدین منظور پژوهش های متعدد روانشناختی برای ارتقای خودکارآمدی انجام گردیده است. پژوهش حاضر یک پژوهش فراتحلیل است که با هدف بررسی میزان اثربخشی مداخلات روانشناختی (روانی – آموزشی) بر خودکارآمدی در دانشجویان ایرانی طی سالهای 1388 تا 1400 انجام شد.
روش کار: جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل مطالعات منتشر شده در مجلات علمی پژوهشی و پژوهشهای نمایه شده نویسندگان ایرانی در خارج از کشور بود. پس از تصریح ملاکهای ورود و خروج، تلاشهای مداخلات روانشناختی (روانی- آموزشی) بر خودکارآمدی دانشجویان در فاصله زمانی بین سالهای 1388 تا 1400 از بانکهای اطلاعاتی استخراج و از بین آنها، تعداد 34 پژوهش با 34 اندازه اثر برای تحلیل نهایی انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش برای تحلیل دادهها، سیاهه وارسی فراتحلیل بود و مراحل انجام فراتحلیل براساس روش فراتحلیل هویت و کرامر (2005) بود. از مجموع 62 مطالعه، 34 مطالعه شامل 1645 شرکتکننده معیارهای واجد شرایط بودن را داشتند.
نتایج: اندازه اثر کلی مطالعه حاضر برابر با 48/0 به دست آمد که براساس نتایج جدول تفسیر d کوهن، میزان اندازه اثر متوسط بود که معنادار به حساب می آید (00001/0P<.). مداخلات روانشناختی به ترتیب بیشترین اندازه اثر به لحاظ ابعاد خودکارآمدی، بعد تحصیلی با 52/0Es = ، سایر ابعاد خودکارآمدی با اندازه اثر 51/0 = Es، و بعد عمومی با اندازه اثر 45/0 = Es است.
نتیجه گیری: می توان گفت مداخلات روانشناختی (روانی- آموزشی) تأثیری معنادار بر ارتقای خودکارآمدی و ابعاد آن در دانشجویان دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Meta-analysis of Psychological Interventions’ Effectiveness (psycho-educational) on Students' Self-Efficacy Using Howitt and Cramer methods in Iran (2005)
- Behzad Rigi Kooteh 1
- Azizollah Mojahed 2
- Sahar Attar 3
- Jafar Sarani Yaztapeh 4
- Abdolghani Rigi 5
1 Faculty member, Department of Clinical Psychology(Children and Adolescents Health Research Center), Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
2 Faculty member, Department of Clinical Psychology(Health Promotion Research Center), Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
3 MSc student of clinical psychology, Faculty of Medicine(Children and Adolescents Health Research Center), Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student in Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Medicine , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Master Degree of Medical Education, Virtual Faculty of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Introduction: Self-efficacy is considered a major predictor of academic achievement, and several psychological studies have attempted to promote this factor in Iranian students. The present meta-analysis research aimed to review the effectiveness of psychological interventions (psycho-educational) on Iranian students' self-efficacy.
Methods: The current study was a meta-analysis in terms of purpose. The statistical population comprised articles by Iranian researchers published in scientific journals and indexed in foreign databases. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, psycho-educational psychological interventions on self-efficacy of students' from databanks during years 2009 to 2021 were extracted which among 34 studies with 34 effect sizes were selected for final analysis. The instrument applied for the data analysis was the meta-analysis checklist, and the stages of the meta-analysis were conducted according to the technique proposed by Howitt and Cramer (2005). After investigating 62 studies, 34 studies including 1645 participants were found to meet the entry criteria.
Results: The overall effect size of the current study was 0.48 that was moderate and significant (p< 0.00001) based on Cohen's D interpretation table. Psychological interventions had the greatest effect size for the educational dimension (Es = 0.52), followed by other self-efficacy dimensions (Es = 0.51) and the general dimension (Es= 0.45), respectively.
Conclusion: According to inclusion, psychological interventions (Psycho-educational) significantly promoted students' self-efficacy and its dimensions.
Meta-analysis of Psychological Interventions’ Effectiveness (psycho-educational) on Students' Self-Efficacy Using Howitt and Cramer methods in Iran (2005)
Introduction: Academic self-efficacy can be defined as a reflection of the student's personal beliefs in their abilities to achieve educational tasks at the expected levels (Malkok and Kesen Matlo 2018). So the ways to enhance self-efficacy have been highlighted. Hence, many studies have been done in this regard: dialectical behavior therapy (Moghadam et al. 2019), group cognitive therapy training (Besharat 2016, Bianfar 2018), acceptance and commitment therapy (Doroudian 2019) and emotion regulation training (Fooladchang and Hasannia 2014, Penrosa, Pari and Ball 2007) including Psychological interventions were aimed at increasing academic self-efficacy. From a methodological view, despite the fact so far, several researches have examined the effectiveness of this therapeutic approach on clients individually and in groups; But so far in Iran, coherent and comprehensive research has not evaluated these researches with the meta-analysis method; On the other hand, considering that numerous researches related to the effectiveness of psychological interventions on self-efficacy in Iran, it gave the impression that conducting a meta-analysis research will help to clarify the real amount of the effectiveness of the interventions and will determine the impact of these interventions. Present study attempted to investigate the effectiveness of psychological interventions on students' self-efficacy using a meta-analysis research.
Materials and methods: In this research, based on the proposed research goal, method was meta-analysis. The statistical population was all the researches published by Iranian authors in scientific journals inside and outside of Iran, conducted between years 2017-2021 in the field of psychological interventions on students' self-efficacy in Iran, which had the necessary conditions in terms of methodology.
The search sources were scientific journals in the field of psychology, educational sciences, medicine, academic Jihad information resource bank and Iranian document centers by referring to the sites sid.ir, google scholar, magiran, the dedicated page of scientific journals. The criteria for the meta-analysis included:
1) The topic should be "psychological interventions and self-efficacy in students". 2) The research was conducted in a group that meant individual studies, reviews and correlations were not accepted. 3) The research should be quasi-experimental. 4) Valid tools and accurate scales should have sufficient validity and reliability.
In addition, the research tool was the content analysis checklist. According to the list of researches and considering the mentioned criteria, 34 studies with 34 effect degrees/rates were approved. Then calculations were done manually; the steps of implementing this meta-analysis were based on the meta-analysis steps of Howitt and Cramer (2005) (Howitt and Cramer 2005; Pasha Sharifi et al. 2018) as follows:
1) Definition of research variables 2) Searching databases 3) Research studies 4) Calculation of influence degree/rate for each study 5) Combination of influen degree/rate of studies 6) Significance of combined studies.
Results and discussion: From 62 studies, 34 studies including 1645 participants met the eligibility criteria. Based on the reviewed findings, the studies in terms of the number of psychological interventions on the type of self-efficacy were general self-efficacy with a frequency of 19 and 55.88%, academic self-efficacy with a frequency of 8 and 23.52%, and other dimensions of self-efficacy (clinical, decision-making and social) with a frequency of 7 and a percentage of 20.58.
Table 3) Combining the results of the volume of studies on the effectiveness of psychological interventions (psycho-educational) on self-efficacy in Iran (students' case study)
Number of influence degree
General Values Zr
The degree/rate of the overall influence of the article
Based on the results obtained from table No.3, the average influence degree/rate obtained from the studies was calculated 0.48.
Table No. (4) Indicates the significance of the combined studies.
Table 4) Significance of combined effectiveness studies
Number of Studies
Z Overall Values
Z Average values
Finding of table No.4 showed the combined significance level of the conducted studies was (P>0.00001), which can be inferred the significance of the total influence degree/rate of psychological interventions (psychological-educational) on self-efficacy in Iran (study case of students). The interpretation of the results based on the influence degree/rate of Cohen's d was obtained in the present study 0.48, that according to the results of the Cohen's d interpretation table, the influence degree/ rate was medium and significant (P<0.00001).
The current study estimated the influence degree/ rate at 0.48, which in Cohen's interpretive evaluation, indicated the average effect size and was also significant. The results of the present meta-analysis were in line with the findings of Aminodin et al. (2021).
A study by Aminodin et al. (2021), examining the evidence and determining the effectiveness of self-management interventions based on smart phones on self-efficacy, self-care activities and quality of life in patients with diabetes, type II, was conducted as a meta-analysis. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (CINHAL, COCHRAN, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus).
Learners with high self-efficacy can improve academically, control their impulses, seem to solve problems, and monitor their progress (Kumaraju, Nadler 2013). Self-efficacy increases when learners actively manage their internal and external environment, have a specific plan for study and review, estimate the level of effort required, focus on progress, and identify support resources (Pintrich, 2004); quoted by Akhwan Tafti and Kodkhodaei (2016), teaching cognitive and metacognitive strategies were also effective in increasing self-efficacy. By using these strategies, people can use appropriate solutions and strategies for learning and studying, moreover, they can complete learning assignments and increase their motivation to learn. Therefore, by using these strategies, learners trust their abilities more, which increase their self-efficacy (Hoseini et al. 2014).
Conclusion: Finally, paying attention to cultural contexts in different societies can be effective in the effectiveness of different treatment approaches. In any case, it is obvious to use various treatment approaches in treating problems, but what is better to pay attention to is the success rate of applying the desired treatment model in solving the problem.
It was suggested that therapists may use proven psychological methods in order to improve self-efficacy. On the other hand, the need to conduct additional studies and combine the findings of these studies was perceived, as this study was proposed to meet this need. However, more research was required on the effectiveness and persistence of the psychological treatments’ effects along an emphasis on biological changes, and researchers should address these issues in a scientific and focused manner. Similarly, it was suggested more meta-analyses and review studies regarding whether there may a significant difference between psychological interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, behavioral therapy, etc.) or not.
Finally, there was a great variety in the types of psychological interventions examined in the present meta-analysis; hence, it suggested that the general mechanisms of changes be done with a content analysis study or a review. One of the limitations of the present research was the lack of a consistent database, which prevents easy access to more different articles across the country.
- Psychological interventions
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