نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت آموزشی، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران.

2 عضو هیئت علمی، گروه مدیریت آموزشی، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران.

3 عضو هیات علمی، گروه مدیریت اموزشی، دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

10.22118/edc.2022.333119.2040

چکیده

مقدمه: در نظام‌های آموزشی از جمله آموزش عالی اندیشه‌ورزی نقش مهمی در آموزش و یادگیری دارد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف طراحی مدل پارادایمی آموزش اندیشه‌ورزی در دانشگاه‌های علوم پزشکی انجام گرفت.
روش: مطالعه حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی است و به روش توصیفی از نوع کیفی اجرا گردید. جامعه پژوهش خبرگان دانشگاهی دانشگاه‌های علوم پزشکی  کشور در سال تحصیلی 400-1399 بودند. حجم نمونه طبق اصل اشباع نظری، 18 بودند و به روش‌های نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و گلوله‌برفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات مصاحبه عمیق بود که روایی آن با روش بازبینی مجدد خبرگان تایید و پایایی آن با روش ضریب توافق بین دو کدگذار 85/0 بدست آمد. برای تحلیل داده‌ها از روش کدگذاری مبتنی بر مدل پارادایمی گراند تئوری در نرم‌افزار MAXQDA-2018 استفاده شد.
یافته ها: یافته‌ها حاکی از شناسایی مدل پارادایمی آموزش اندیشه‌ورزی در دانشگاه‌های علوم پزشکی با 62 شاخص و 10 مولفه بود.شرایط علی شامل: ناکارآمدی دانشجویان برای عبور از مسائل در شرایط پیچیده و جامعه‌محور نبودن کارکردهای نظام دانشگاهی پزشکی، شرایط زمینه‌ای شامل: اختصاص اعتبار ویژه برای اصلاح روش‌های آموزشی، شرایط مداخله‌ای شامل: توسعه مرزهای دانش و توجه به مسائل جهانی در قلمرو علوم پزشکی، پدیده محوری شامل: پرورش اندیشه‌ورزی به‌عنوان فرایند تصمیم‌گیری آگاهانه و منطقی، راهبردها شامل گفتمان‌سازی مناسب، آموزش روش‌های حل مساله و طراحی و سازماندهی عناصر برنامه‌درسی و پیامدها شامل توسعه دانش و توسعه شایستگی‌های فردی بود. در نهایت، مدل پارادایمی آموزش اندیشه‌ورزی در دانشگاه‌های علوم پزشکی طراحی شده و مورد تایید قرار گرفت.
نتیجه گیری: مدل پارادایمی آموزش اندیشه‌ورزی در دانشگاه‌های علوم پزشکی کشور می تواند برای  بهبود و ارتقای آموزش اندیشه‌ورزی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing a Paradigm Model of Teaching Reflective in Universities of Medical Sciences

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shirin Karimi Taleghani 1
  • Kiomars Niaz Azeri 2
  • Negin Jabbari 3

1 PhD Student, Department of Educational Management, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran.

2 Faculty member, Department of Educational Management, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran.

3 Faculty member, Department of Educational Management, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Purpose: In educational systems including higher education, the teaching reflective plays an important role in teaching and learning. As a result, the purpose of this study was to designing a paradigm model to train thinking in universities of medical sciences.
Method: The present study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was qualitative. The research population was the academic experts of Medical Sciences Universities all over the country in the academic years 2020-2021. According to the theoretical saturation principle, 18 people were selected by purposeful and snowball sampling methods, and what is more, data collection tool was a depth interview which its validity was confirmed by the expert review method and its reliability by the agreement coefficient method between the two coders was estimated 0.85. The coding method based on the paradigm model of ground theory in MAXQDA-2018 software was used for data analysis, too.
Findings: The findings showed that in the paradigm model of teaching reflective in universities of medical sciences were identified 62 indicators in 10 components; In conclusion, the causal conditions including students' inefficiency to overcome problems in complex situations and non-community-oriented functions of the medical universal system; underlying conditions including the allocation of special credits of educational methods’ modification; intervention conditions including the development of knowledge boundaries and attention to global issues in the field of medical sciences; central phenomenon including the development of reflective as a conscious and rational decision-making process; strategies including appropriate discourse, teaching problem-solving methods and designing and organizing curriculum elements; and consequences outcome including knowledge and development of individual competencies. Considering all of the above, a paradigm model of teaching the thinking in universities of medical sciences was designed.
Conclusion: Based on the results, to improve and enhance teaching reflective can be improved the components and indicators identified for them.
Extended abstract
Purpose: Human power is the most important pillar of today's organizations and about 70% of all resources and investment of an organization is its human power. Having an efficient, committed, loyal, knowledge-based, and organizationally owned workforce is an important capital for the organization that can create a competitive advantage. In order to have such a force, it is necessary to develop a curriculum in accordance with the needs of the society and cooperation between different parts of the educational system and centers providing health services, and universities of medical sciences emphasized on obtaining a large amount of information since centuries ago. Efficient, competent and capable human resources have been one of the most important management resources in the health system, too. In educational systems, including higher education, thinking plays an important role in teaching and learning. As a result, the aim of this research was to design a paradigm model of thinking training in medical sciences universities.
Method: The present study was applied in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of qualitative type. The research community was the academic experts of the universities of medical sciences of the whole country during the academic year 2019-2020, who were considered experts in the field of thinking, education and its management, and in the field of development and management of human resources in the universities of medical sciences. According to the principle of theoretical saturation, the sample size was 18 people considering that these people were selected by targeted and snowball sampling methods.  Moreover, the principle of theoretical saturation, sampling process continued until the research reached saturation and the new samples could not add anything to the current findings research. The conditions or criteria for entering the experts for study included minimum doctoral education, agreement to record interviews, mastery of the subject of thinking and management of thinking, mastery of the conditions of human resource development as well as mastery of the conditions of human resource management in universities of medical sciences, , whereas the conditions or criteria for withdrawing from the study included unwillingness to participate in the research and refusal to continue cooperation, and participation in the interview after announcing participation in it. The validity of the interviews was confirmed by the expert reviewed method. For this purpose, the interviewer confirmed the content by returning the speech and thoughts of the interviewees during the interview and summarizing them, and after the completion of the interviews by sending the full typed and handwritten text of all the interviews. Also, the reliability of the interviews was checked and its level was obtained by the method of the coefficient of agreement between two coders. For data analysis, the coding method based on Grand Theory paradigm model was also used in MAXQDA-2018 software.
Findings: The findings showed that 62 indicators were identified in 10 components in the paradigm model of thinking training in universities of medical sciences; so that in the mentioned model, the causal conditions included the ineffectiveness of students to overcome problems in complex conditions and the lack of community-oriented functions of the medical university system, the background conditions contained the allocation of special credit for the reform of educational methods, the intervention conditions also included the development of knowledge boundaries and attention to global issues in the field of medical sciences. Moreover, the central phenomenon included the development of thinking as a conscious and logical decision-making process, strategies contained appropriate discourse creation, teaching problem-solving methods and designing and organizing curriculum elements; and the consequences contained within the development of knowledge and the development of individual competencies. Finally, the paradigm model of thinking training in medical sciences universities was designed.
Discussion and conclusion: The findings of this research showed that 62 indicators were identified in 10 components in the paradigm model of thinking education in universities of medical sciences; Hence, the outcomes in the mentioned model showed the causal conditions including the ineffectiveness of students to overcome problems in complex conditions and the lack of community-oriented functions of the medical university system; the background conditions including the allocation of special credit for the reform of educational methods; the intervention conditions including the development of knowledge boundaries and attention to global issues in the field of medical sciences; the central phenomenon including the cultivation of thinking as a conscious and logical decision-making process; strategies including appropriate discourse creation, teaching problem solving methods and designing and organizing curriculum elements; and the consequences including the development of knowledge and the development of individual competencies; and finally a model was designed as a paradigm. Although the shortage of researches were found about the paradigm model of thinking education, based on the results it can be stated the components and indicators identified for them can be improved in order to improve and promote thinking education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reflective
  • teaching reflective
  • universities of medical sciences
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